Message Passing Interface¶
DART programs can be compiled using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). MPI is both a library and run-time system that enables multiple copies of a single program to run in parallel, exchange data, and combine to solve a problem more quickly.
DART does NOT require MPI to run; the default build scripts do not need nor use MPI in any way. However, for larger models with large state vectors and large numbers of observations, the data assimilation step will run much faster in parallel, which requires MPI to be installed and used. However, if multiple ensembles of your model fit comfortably (in time and memory space) on a single processor, you need read no further about MPI.
MPI is an open-source standard; there are many implementations of it. If you have a large single-vendor system it probably comes with an MPI library by default. For a Linux cluster there are generally more variations in what might be installed; most systems use a version of MPI called MPICH. In smaller clusters or dual-processor workstations a version of MPI called either LAM-MPI or OpenMPI might be installed, or can be downloaded and installed by the end user.
OpenMP is a different parallel system; OpenMPI is a recent effort with a confusingly similar name.
An “MPI program” makes calls to an MPI library, and needs to be compiled with MPI include files and libraries.
Generally the MPI installation includes a shell script called
mpif90 which adds the flags and libraries appropriate
for each type of fortran compiler. So compiling an MPI program usually means simply changing the fortran compiler name
to the MPI script name.
These MPI scripts are built during the MPI install process and are specific to a particular compiler; if your system has multiple fortran compilers installed then either there will be multiple MPI scripts built, one for each compiler type, or there will be an environment variable or flag to the MPI script to select which compiler to invoke. See your system documentation or find an example of a successful MPI program compile command and copy it.
DART use of MPI¶
To run in parallel, only the DART ‘filter’ program (possibly the companion ‘wakeup_filter’ program), and the ‘GSI2DART’ observation converter need to be compiled with the MPI scripts. All other DART executables should be compiled with a standard F90 compiler and are not MPI enabled. (And note again that ‘filter’ can still be built as a single executable like previous releases of DART; using MPI and running in parallel is simply an additional option.) To build a parallel version of the ‘filter’ program, the ‘mkmf_filter’ command needs to be called with the ‘-mpi’ option to generate a Makefile which compiles with the MPI scripts instead of the Fortran compiler.
quickbuild.csh script in each
$DART/models/*/work directory for the commands that need to be edited to
enable the MPI utilities. You will also need to edit the
$DART/mkmf/mkmf.template file to call the proper version
of the MPI compile script if it does not have the default name, is not in a standard location on the system, or needs
additional options set to select between multiple Fortran compilers.
MPI programs generally need to be started with a shell script called ‘mpirun’ or ‘mpiexec’, but they also interact with any batch control system that might be installed on the cluster or parallel system. Parallel systems with multiple users generally run some sort of batch system (e.g. LSF, PBS, POE, LoadLeveler, etc). You submit a job request to this system and it schedules which nodes are assigned to which jobs. Unfortunately the details of this vary widely from system to system; consult your local web pages or knowledgeable system admin for help here. Generally the run scripts supplied with DART have generic sections to deal with LSF, PBS, no batch system at all, and sequential execution, but the details (e.g. the specific queue names, accounting charge codes) will almost certainly have to be adjusted.
The data assimilation process involves running multiple copies (ensembles) of a user model, with an assimilation computation interspersed between calls to the model. There are many possible execution combinations, including:
Compiling the assimilation program ‘filter’ with the model, resulting in a single executable. This can be either a sequential or parallel program.
Compiling ‘filter’ separately from the model, and having 2 separate executables. Either or both can be sequential or parallel.
async = 0 The model and filter programs are compiled into a single executable, and when the model needs to advance, the filter program calls a subroutine. See a diagram which illustrates this option.
async = 2 The model is compiled into a sequential (single task) program. If ‘filter’ is running in parallel, each filter task will execute the model independently to advance the group of ensembles. See a diagram which illustrates this option.
async = 4 The model is compiled into an MPI program (parallel) and only ‘filter’ task 0 tells the startup script when it is time to advance the model. Each ensemble is advanced one by one, with the model using all the processors to run in parallel. See a diagram which illustrates this option.
async ignored (sometimes referred to as ‘async 5’, but not a setting in the namelist) This is the way most large models run now. There is a separate script, outside of filter, which runs the N copies of the model to do the advance. Then filter is run, as an MPI program, and it only assimilates for a single time and then exits. The external script manages the file motion between steps, and calls both the models and filter in turn.
DART/developer_tests/mpi_utilities/tests/READMEfor instructions and a set of tests to narrow down any difficulties.
Performance issues and timing results¶
Getting good performance from a parallel program is frequently difficult. Here are a few of reasons why:
Amdahl’s law You can look up the actual formula for this “law” in the Wikipedia, but the gist is that the amount of serial code in your program limits how much faster your program runs on a parallel machine, and at some point (often much sooner than you’d expect) you stop getting any speedup when adding more processors.
Surface area to volume ratio Many scientific problems involve breaking up a large grid or array of data and distributing the smaller chunks across the multiple processors. Each processor computes values for the data on the interior of the chunk they are given, but frequently the data along the edges of each chunk must be communicated to the processors which hold the neighboring chunks of the grid. As you increase the number of processors (and keep the problem size the same) the chunk size becomes smaller. As this happens, the ‘surface area’ around the edges decreases slower than the ‘volume’ inside that one processor can compute independently of other processors. At some point the communication overhead of exchanging edge data limits your speedup.
Hardware architecture system balance Raw CPU speeds have increased faster than memory access times, which have increased faster than access to secondary storage (e.g. I/O to disk). Computations which need to read input data and write result files typically create I/O bottlenecks. There are machines with parallel filesystems, but many programs are written to have a single processor read in the data and broadcast it to all the other processors, and collect the data on a single node before writing. As the number of processors increases the amount of time spent waiting for I/O and communication to and from the I/O node increases. There are also capacity issues; for example the amount of memory available on the I/O node to hold the entire dataset can be insufficient.
NUMA memory Many machines today have multiple levels of memory: on-chip private cache, on-chip shared cache, local shared memory, and remote shared memory. The approach is referred as Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) because each level of memory has different access times. While in general having faster memory improves performance, it also makes the performance very difficult to predict since it depends not just on the algorithms in the code, but is very strongly a function of working-set size and memory access patterns. Beyond shared memory there is distributed memory, meaning multiple CPUs are closely connected but cannot directly address the other memory. The communication time between nodes then depends on a hardware switch or network card, which is much slower than local access to memory. The performance results can be heavily influenced in this case by problem size and amount of communication between processes.
Parallel performance can be measured and expressed in several different ways. A few of the relevant definitions are:
Speedup Generally defined as the wall-clock time for a single processor divided by the wall-clock time for N processors.
Efficiency The speedup number divided by N, which for perfect scalability will remain at 1.0 as N increases.
Strong scaling The problem size is held constant and the number of processors is increased.
Weak scaling The problem size grows as the number of processors increases so the amount of work per processor is held constant.
We measured the strong scaling efficiency of the DART ‘filter’ program on a variety of platforms and problem sizes. The scaling looks very good up to the numbers of processors available to us to test on. It is assumed that for MPP (Massively-Parallel Processing) machines with 10,000s of processors that some algorithmic changes will be required. These are described in this paper.